(24 martial arts OLD BOOK)
Muye 24ki(24 martial arts) are drawn and explained in this book which was compiled in 1790 by the practical scholars who were Lee Deok-mu, Park Je-ga and the martial arts master, Baek Dong-su under the command of King Jeongjo. This book contains 24 martial arts consisted of not only Koean traditional arts but also superior martial arts of China and Japan, showing the spirit of the practical science for a wealthy and strong kindom.
Soldiers of Jang Yong Yeong guard, consisting of the elite soldiers at the time, staioned in Hwaswong, Trained these Muye 24ki, so this book is an intangible cultural asset, highly valued historically as well as artistically and for athletic education. Soldiers stationed in the north camp and south camp of Hwaseong Haenggung also trained these Muye 24ki to safeguard the palace.
At the same time of restoring Hwaseong Haenggung, these Muye 24ki containing the versatile physical movements and lively spirit of Korean people are performaed here.
Volume 1 : Janchang, Jukjanchang, Gichang, Dangpa, Nangseon, Gichang
Volume 2 : Ssangsudo, Yedo, Weageom, Gyojeon
Volume 3 : Jedokgeom, Bongukgeom, Ssanggeom, Masang Ssanggeom, Woldo, Masang Woldo, Hyeobdo, Deungpae
Volume 4 : Gwonbedo, Gonbang, Pyeongon, Masang Pyeongon, Gyeokgu, Masangjae
Muye 24ki(24 martial arts - Korean traditional martial arts)
Before discussing the subject of traditional Korean martial arts, it would be helpful to first examine the concepts of "tradition" and "martial arts" separately.
Tradition relates to that which has continued from the past to the present, including the customs, behavior, skills and technology of a people that have been passed down from generation to generation.
"Martial arts" relates to the act of defending oneself using such weapons as a bow and arrow, sword, or spear. Moreover, it involves training in fighting techniques and the use of weapons while incorporating mental discipline as well.
Based on the foregoing traditional martial arts can be defined as "fighting techniques that have been handed down from generation to generation to the present day, while being studied and developed over time and adapted to contemporary usage."
In reference to the martial arts of China,Japan and Korea, China is associated with the spear, Japan with the sword and Korea with the bow and arrow. Since ancient times, the three countries have experienced relationships that have alternated between confrontation and friendship while exchanging and absorbing many aspects of each other's cultures.
Nonetheless, the use of the spear by China, the sword by Japan, and the bow and arrow by Korea, are all rooted in the character of each country's people.
As for the background of Korean martial arts, according to Sin Chae-ho's Joseonsanggosa (The Early History of Joseon), in ancient times bands of warrior youths were selected for training in swordsmanship, archery, horsemanship, taekgyeon, and swimming, which they learned while roaming about the countryside and participating in regularly held competitions to show off their prowess during such heaven-worshipping ceremonies as Goguryeo's Dongmaeng, Buyeo's Yeonggo and Ye's Mucheon. Institutions were later established where these youths were trained in the five righteous virtues (loyalty, fidelity, faith, courage and humanity), and instructed in the six social graces (literature and archery, horsemanship, etiquette, music and song fist fighting and swordsmanship).
This training in martial arts and swordsmanship, including horsemanship and archery, combined with instruction in etiquette was mandatory education for youth in ancient times.
This is reflected in the wall painting! s found in Goguryeo (37 B.C.-A.D. 668) tombs such as Samsilchong, Ssangyeongchong, Muyongchong and Gakjeochong that depict scenes of horse-mounted troops engaged in battle as well as taekgyeon and ssireum (traditional wrestling). At that time, martial arts training was especially comprehensive, incorporating ssireum, taekgyeon and archery, while taking the form of combat with elements of sport and dance as well.
However, as the authority of the military government deteriorated at the end of the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392) along with the Mongol defeat of the Sambyeolcho, the Three Elite Patrols, traditional Korean martial arts essentially disappeared from everyday life though they continued to be practiced underground. Outwardly, only the sport aspects of the martial arts survived in the form of ssireum and taekgyeon, which became widely popular with commoners as folk games.
Muyedobotongji, a comprehensive illustrated manual of Korean martial arts published during the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), is an especially significant record in that it includes not only information about Korean martial arts but also describes how the martial arts and fighting techniques of other countries had come to be known in Korea. It served to expand the application of martial arts using the bow and arrow and the sword for military purposes rather than personal endeavors.
Muyedobotongji was commissioned by King Jeongjo (r. 1776-1800) and published in four volumes in 1790, the 14th year of Jeongjo's reign. It was compiled by Yi Deok-mu (1741-1793), Bak Je-ga (1750-l8O5) and Beg Dong-su based on the actual state of military affairs at the time. There is an additional volume in which the original Chinese characters are presented in the Korean script, Hangeul.
The motivation for this major publication related to the foreign invasions of Korea during the Joseon Dynasty, in particular the Japanese invasions led by the warlord Hideyoshi and the Byeongja Horan, an offensive by Qing China. These invasions shattered the peace of the first 200 years of the Joseon Dynasty, thus arousing in the king and commoners alike the need to revive Korea's martial arts.
As previously mentioned, Muyedobotongji explains how elements of Chinese and Japanese martial arts were incorporated into Korean martial arts. In particular, the recording of Japanese swordsmanship, or waegeom, demonstrates the importance that Koreans placed on knowing their enemies well in order to devise defensive countermeasures.
The book is divided into 24 chapters, dealing with a variety of martial art forms. The first volume is devoted to spear fighting with six chapters on different spear-fighting techniques. The second volume covers sword fighting with two chapters on traditional Korean techniques and one chapter on Japanese swordsmanship.
The third volume contains eight chapters describing various types of sword fighting, while the fourth volume is dedicated to six different types of martial arts including the "fist method," gwonbeop, and various horse-mounted martial arts. At the end of the book is an appendix that provides detailed illustrations of the kind of clothing worn in four different types of martial arts and is thus a valuable reference for the study of ancient clothing.
The following is a brief introduction to five martial arts included in Muyedobotongji, including four indigenous martial arts and Japanese swordsmanship.
Muyedobotongjj contains detailed drawings and explanations of the movements of each school of Japanese swordsmanship and includes a chapter on Japanese sword fighting, making it a truly rare document the likes of which cannot be found even in Japan. There are illustrations of all the movements of both waegeom and waegeomgyojeon. Waegeom is different from the traditional sword techniques of geomdo, or kendo in Japanese, which was forcibly transplanted to Korea during Japanese colonial rule (1910-1945).
All of these martial arts continued to be practiced until the end of the Joseon Dynasty, but with the introduction of Western culture and modern firearms, they lost their original purpose. Nevertheless, they continued to survive by developing in a different direction.
Though this might not be evident in such martial arts as taekgyeon and archery, it can be seen in the movements of traditional masked dances and shaman dances that are similar to martial arts movements in regard to gi, or natural energy, which is generated and subsequently released. The current effort to revive traditional martial arts is a most welcome development.
「Institute of Korea Traditional Martiarts '24KI'(24KI Martialarts Academy)」- Master Choi